Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion
Introduction, Summary, and Conclusions - Preventing Tobacco Use ...
The impact of cigarette smoking and other tobacco use on chronic disease, which
accounts for 75% of American spending on health care (Anderson 2010), ...
Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion
Tobacco use a pediatric epidemic editorial peto r, lopez ad. Airborne concentration of nicotine is a specific tracer for secondhand smoke. The epidemiology of tobacco use among young people in the united states and worldwide among adults who become daily smokers, nearly all first use of cigarettes occurs by 18 years of age (88), with 99 of first use by 26 years of age.
The effect of legislation to ban smoking and its effects on the cardiovascular health of nonsmoking adults, however, remains a question. The committee could not determine the magnitude of effect with any reasonable degree of certainty on the basis of those studies. Although in most of the smoking-ban studies the magnitude, frequency, and duration of exposures that occurred before a ban are not known, monitoring studies demonstrate that exposure to secondhand smoke is dramatically reduced in places that are covered by bans.
The committee identified the following gaps and research needs as those most critical for improving understanding of the effect of indoor-air policies on acute coronary events the committee found a relative paucity of data on environmental cardiotoxicity of secondhand smoke compared with other disease end points related to secondhand smoke, such as carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. Short-term effects of italian smoking regulation on rates of hospital admission for acute myocardial infarction. The report documented the addiction process for young people and how the symptoms of addiction in youth are similar to those in adults.
The results of dozens of epidemiologic studies of both casecontrol and cohort design carried out in multiple populations consistently indicate about a 2530 increase in risk of coronary heart disease from exposure to secondhand smoke (see ). Relevant to this surgeon generals report are cochrane reviews on interventions using mass media ( ), the effects of advertising and promotional activities on smoking among youth ( ). The results of both casecontrol and cohort studies carried out in multiple populations consistently indicate exposure to secondhand smoke causes about a 2530 increase in the risk of coronary heart disease results of some studies indicate a doseresponse relationship.
It could be a new study specifically designed to assess effects of secondhand smoke or, as was done with the interheart study, take advantage of existing studiessuch as the framingham heart study, the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis, the american cancer societys cancer prevention study-3, the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study, and the jackson heart studyprovided that they have adequate information on individual smoking status and secondhand-smoke exposure (or the ability to measure it, for example, in adequate blood samples). When possible, an effort was made to be specific about the age group to which a particular analysis, study, or conclusion applies. That report concluded that if young people can remain free of tobacco until 18 years of age, most will never start to smoke.
The results of the studies are consistent with the findings of the pathophysiologic studies discussed in results of the key intervention studies reviewed by the committee are for the most part consistent with a decrease in risk as early as a month following reductions in secondhand-smoke exposure however, given the variability in the studies and the lack of data on the precise timing of interventions, the smoking-ban studies do not provide adequate information on the time it takes to see decreases in acute mis. Evidence for enhanced neurobehavioral vulnerability to nicotine during peri-adolescence in rats. Nine key studies looked at the overall effect of smoking bans on the incidence of acute coronary events in the overall populationssmokers and nonsmokersstudied (barone-adesi et al. After years of steady progress, declines in the use of tobacco by youth and young adults have slowed for cigarette smoking and stalled for smokeless tobacco use. In general, this group encompasses those 1117 years of age, although children is a more general term that will include those younger than 11 years of age.
The Harmful Effects Of Smoking Health And Social Care Essay
There are many bad effects of smoking related to health, social and
psychological ... Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations
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Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion
Conclusion - World Health Organization
tobacco epidemic is making health inequalities worse, both within countries,
where in most cases the poor smoke far more than the wealthy, and
Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion
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8 Conclusions and Recommendations | Secondhand Smoke ...
Evidence that was characterized as level 1 or level 2 was prioritized for inclusion as chapter conclusions. Specifically, information is lacking on the cardiotoxicity of highly reactive smoke constituents, such as acrolein and other oxidants on techniques for quantitating those reactive components and on the toxicity of low concentrations of benzo pyrene, of pahs other than benzoapyrene, and of mixtures of tobacco-smoke toxicants. This chapter summarizes the committees review of information relevant to those relationships presents its findings, conclusions, and recommendations on the basis of the weight of evidence and presents its responses to the specific questions that it was asked in its task. Office of the surgeon general reports of the surgeon general, u. The exact mechanisms by which such effects occur, however, remain to be elucidated.
Researchers should clearly articulate the assumptions used in their statistical models and include analysis of the sensitivity of results to model choice and assumptions. In addition, it is important to note that the report is concerned with active smoking or use of smokeless tobacco on the part of the young person. The excess risk is unlikely to be explained by misclassification bias, uncontrolled-for confounding effects, or publication bias. The evidence is sufficient to conclude that there is a causal relationship between smoking and addiction to nicotine, beginning in adolescence and young adulthood. As noted in this report, we now have a set of proven tools and policies that can drastically lower youth initiation and use of tobacco products.
Interpretation of the results of epidemiologic studies that involve smoking bans must account for information on the bans and their enforcement. Although there are no specific conclusions in that report regarding adolescent addiction, it does describe evidence indicating that adolescents can become dependent at even low levels of consumption. Reduced incidence of admissions for myocardial infarction associated with public smoking ban before and after study. Reduction in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction associated with a citywide smoking ordinance. The strongest evidence comes from airpollution research, especially research on pm. . Specifically, the committee was to review available scientific literature on secondhand smoke exposure (including short-term exposure) and acute coronary events, and produce a report characterizing the state of the science on the topic, with emphasis on the evidence for causality and knowledge gaps that future research should address. Since 1994, multiple legal and scientific developments have altered the tobacco control environment and thus have affected smoking among youth. Particulate matter (pm) can also be used as an indicator of secondhand-smoke exposure, but because there are other sources of pm it is a less specific tracer than nicotine. The tobacco industrys influences on the use of tobacco among youth in 2008, tobacco companies spent 9.Read chapter 8 Conclusions and Recommendations: Data suggest that ...
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The studies took advantage of bans as natural experiments to look at questions about the effects of bans, and indirectly of a decrease in secondhand-smoke exposure, on the incidence of acute cardiac events. Evidence indicates that smoking bans decrease secondhand-smoke exposure association comports with what is known about particulate-matter pollution and cardiovascular disease association comports with what is known about particulate-matter pollution and acute coronary events association comports with what is known about particulate-matter pollution, secondhand-smoke exposure, and coronary heart disease strength of association is categorized as weak because effect estimates are generally small, are variable, or both Buy now Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion
Smoking visibility, perceived acceptability, and frequency in various locations among youth and adults. The tobacco industrys influences on the use of tobacco among youth in 2008, tobacco companies spent 9. The committee used the criteria of causation described in (u. There are not enough data on the presence of pre-existing coronary arterial disease in the populations studied to assess the extent to which the absence or presence of such preexisting disease affects the cardiovascular risk posed by secondhand-smoke exposure. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is highest among american indians and alaska natives, followed by whites and hispanics, and then asians and blacks.
Department of health and human services, centers for disease control and prevention, national center for chronic disease prevention and health promotion, office on smoking and health 1998 Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion Buy now
The circumstantial evidence of such a relationship, however, is compelling. Family-based programmes for preventing smoking by children and adolescents. Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the interheart study a case-control study. The evidence is sufficient to conclude that there is a causal relationship between peer group social influences and the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors during adolescence. The evidence is suggestive that tobacco use is a heritable trait, more so for regular use than for onset.
Advertising and promotional activities by tobacco companies have been shown to cause the onset and continuation of smoking among adolescents and young adults Buy Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion at a discount
Early exposure to movie smoking predicts established smoking by older teens and young adults. Experimental studies in humans, animals, and cell cultures have demonstrated short-term effects of secondhand smoke as a complex mixture or its components individually (such as oxidants, pm, acrolein, pahs, benzene, and metals) on the cardiovascular system. The concentration of cotinine in serum, saliva, or urine is a specific indicator of integrated exposure to secondhand smoke. There are not enough data on the presence of pre-existing coronary arterial disease in the populations studied to assess the extent to which the absence or presence of such preexisting disease affects the cardiovascular risk posed by secondhand-smoke exposure Buy Online Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion
Additionally, the report does not discuss research on children younger than 11 years old there is very little evidence of tobacco use in the united states by children younger than 11 years of age, and although there may be some predictors of later tobacco use in those younger years, the research on active tobacco use among youth has been focused on those 11 years of age and older. Retrospective based on records study period august 1, 2001may 31, 2005, that is, 22 months before and 22 months after bans enforcement retrospective based on hospital discharge records in 19992005 assessment from october 2002 to 39 months after ban went into effect (march 2002) legislation enacted to require smoke-free workplaces, public places, including restaurants, bars suspended after about 6 months 40 decrease in average monthly admissions (from 40 to 24 decrease of 16 cases, 95 ci) ban on smoking in all indoor public places, including offices, retail shops, cafes, bars, restaurants, discotheques in italy provision for smoking rooms 13 Buy Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion Online at a discount
Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours. What are the most critical research gaps that should be addressed to improve our understanding of the impact of indoor air policies on acute coronary events? What studies should be performed to address these gaps? And pm concentrations in regulated venues such as workplaces, bars, and restaurants decreased by more than 80 in most studies serum, salivary, or urinary cotinine concentrations decreased by 50 or more in most studies, probably reflecting continuing exposures in unregulated venues (for example, in homes and cars). Also, the 1998 master settlement agreement with the tobacco companies resulted in the elimination of billboard and transit advertising as well as print advertising that directly targeted underage youth and limitations on the use of brand sponsorships ( ) Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion For Sale
The draft sections were consolidated into chapters by the chapter editors and then reviewed by the senior scientific editor, with technical editing performed by cdc. Those studies are supported by information from other smoking-ban studies (although these do not have information on individual smoking status, other exposure-assessment studies have demonstrated that secondhand-smoke exposure decreases after implementation of a smoking ban) and by the large body of literature on pm, especially pm constituent of secondhand smoke. Research should develop standard definitions of cardiotoxic end points in pathophysiologic studies (for example, specific results on standard assays) and a classification system for cardiotoxic agents (similar to the international agency for research on cancer classification of carcinogens) For Sale Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion
Nine key studies looked at the overall effect of smoking bans on the incidence of acute coronary events in the overall populationssmokers and nonsmokersstudied (barone-adesi et al. Characteristics of smoking bans can heavily influence their consequences. The committee was tasked with responding to eight specific questions. The entire manuscript was then sent to more than 25 external senior scientists who reviewed the science of the entire document. Although there are national databases that include acute mi patientssuch as the national registry of myocardial infarction (morrow et al.
The evidence is sufficient to conclude that school-based programs with evidence of effectiveness, containing specific components, can produce at least short-term effects and reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among school-aged youth Sale Effects Of Smoking Essay Conclusion
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